• 1. A Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System

    Kavi K.Khedo, Rajiv Perseedoss and Avinash Mungur
    May 2010 | Cited by 272

    Sensor networks are currently an active research area mainly due to the potential of their applications. In this paper we investigate the use osf Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) for air pollution monitoring in Mauritius. With the fast growing industrial activities on the island, the problem of air pollution is becoming a major concern for the health of the population. We proposed an innovative system named Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System (WAPMS) to monitor air pollution in Mauritius through the use of wireless sensors deployed in huge numbers around the island. The proposed system makes use of an Air Quality Index (AQI) which is presently not available in Mauritius. In order to improve the efficiency of WAPMS, we have designed and implemented a new data aggregation algorithm named Recursive Converging Quartiles (RCQ). The algorithm is used to merge data to eliminate duplicates, filter out invalid readings and summarise them into a simpler form which significantly reduce the amount of data to be transmitted to the sink and thus saving energy. For better power management we used a hierarchical routing protocol in WAPMS and caused the motes to sleep during idle time.
  • 2. Application of Wireless Sensor Networks for Greenhouse Parameter Control in Precision Agriculture

    D.D.Chaudhary, S.P.Nayse, and L.M.Waghmare
    February 2011 | Cited by 163

    The technological development in Wireless Sensor Networks made it possible to use in monitoring and control of greenhouse parameter in precision agriculture. In last decades there have been tremendous advancements in technology for agriculture and growth of final yield. Due to uneven natural distribution of rain water it is very crucial for farmers to monitor and control the equal distribution of water to all crops in the whole farm or as per the requirement of the crop. There is no ideal irrigation method available which may be suitable for all weather conditions, soil structure and variety of crops cultures. Green house technology may be the best solution for this solution. All the parameters of greenhouse require a detailed analysis in order to choose the correct method. It is observed that farmers have to bear huge financial loss because of wrong prediction of weather and incorrect irrigation method to crops. In this contest with the evolution in wireless sensor technologies and miniaturized sensor devices, it is possible to uses them for automatic environment monitoring and controlling the parameters of greenhouse, for Precision Agriculture (PA) application. In this paper, we have proposed and analyse the use of Programmable System on Chip Technology (PSoC) as a part of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) to monitor and control various parameter of green house.
  • 3. Performance Comparisons of Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    P.Manickam, T.Guru Baskar, M.Girija and D.Manimegalai
    February 2011 | Cited by 98

    Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of wireless mobile nodes that dynamically form a network temporarily without any support of central administration. Moreover, Every node in MANET moves arbitrarily making the multi-hop network topology to change randomly at unpredictable times. There are several familiar routing protocols like DSDV, AODV, DSR, etc... which have been proposed for providing communication among all the nodes in the network. This paper presents a performance comparison of proactive and reactive protocols DSDV, AODV and DSR based on metrics such as throughput, packet delivery ratio and average end-to-end delay by using the NS-2 simulator.
  • 4. Efficient Multi-Path Pprotocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Shuang Li, Raghu Kisore Neelisetti, Cong Liu snd Alvin Lim
    February 2010 | Cited by 88

    Wireless sensor networks are useful for streaming multimedia in infrastructure-free and hazardous environments. However, these networks are quite different from their wired counterpart and are composed of nodes with constrained bandwidth and energy.Multiple-path transmission is one of the methods for ensuring QoS routing in both wires and wireless environment.Directed diffusion,a well known wireless sensor network protocol,only routes packets through a single path,which barely meets the throughput requirement of multimedia date.Instead,we propose a multipath algorithm based on directed diffusion that reinforces multiple routes with high link quality and low latency.
  • 5. Network Evolution and QoS Provisioning for Integrated Femtocell/Macrocell Networks

    Mostafa Zaman Chowdhury, Yeong Min Jang, Zygmunt J.Haas
    August 2010 | Cited by 70

    Integrated femtocell/macrocell networks, comprising a conventional cellular network overlaid with femtocells, offer an economically appealing way to improve coverage, quality of service, and access network capacity. The key element to successful femtocells/macrocell integration lies in its self-organizing capability. Provisioning of quality of service is the main technical challenge of the femtocell/macrocell integrated networks, while the main administrative challenge is the choice of the proper evolutionary path from the existing macro cellular networks to the integrated network. In this article, we introduce three integrated network architectures which, while increasing the access capacity, they also reduce the deployment and operational costs. Then, we discuss a number of technical issues, which are key to making such integration a reality, and we offer possible approaches to their solution. These issues include efficient frequency and interference management, quality of service provisioning of the xDSL-based backhaul networks, and intelligent handover control.
  • 6. Requirements of Vertical Handoff Mechanism in 4G Wireless Networks

    Mandeep Kaur Gondara and Sanjay Kadam
    April 2011 | Cited by 56

    The importance of wireless communication is increasing day by day throughout the world due to cellular and broadband technologies. Everyone around the world would like to be connected seamlessly anytime anywhere through the best network. The 4G wireless system must have the capability to provide high data transfer rates, quality of services and seamless mobility. In 4G, there are a large variety of heterogeneous networks. The users for variety of applications would like to utilize heterogeneous networks on the basis of their preferences such as real time, high availability and high bandwidth. When connections have to switch between heterogeneous networks for performance and high availability reasons, seamless vertical handoff is necessary. The requirements like capability of the network, handoff latency, network cost, network conditions, power consumption and user's preferences must be taken into consideration during vertical handoff. In this paper, we have extracted the requirements of a vertical handoff from the literature surveyed. The evaluation of the existing work is also being done on the basis of required parameters for vertical handoff. A sophisticated, adaptive and intelligent approach is required to implement the vertical handoff mechanism in 4G wireless networks to produce an effective service for the user by considering dynamic and non dynamic parameters.
  • 7. Channel Allocation and Routing in Wireless Mesh Networks: A Survey and Qualitative Comparison between Schemes

    F.Kaabi, S.Ghannay and F.Filali
    February 2010 | Cited by 56

    In order to avoid transmission's collisions and improve network performances in wireless mesh network (WMNs),a reliable and efficient medium access contro;(MAC)Protocol and a good channel allocation are needed.Allowing mutiple channels use in the same network is often presented as a possible way to improve the network capacity.
  • 8. Smart Living Using Bluetooth-Based Android Smartphone

    Ming Yan and Hao Shi
    February 2013 | Cited by 52

    With the development of modern technology and Android Smartphone, Smart Living is gradually changing people’s life. Bluetooth technology, which aims to exchange data wirelessly in a short distance using short-wavelength radio transmissions, is providing a necessary technology to create convenience, intelligence and controllability. In this paper, a new Smart Living system called home lighting control system using Bluetooth-based Android Smartphone is proposed and prototyped. First Smartphone, Smart Living and Bluetooth technology are reviewed. Second the system architecture, communication protocol and hardware design aredescribed. Then the design of a Bluetooth-based Smartphone application and the prototype are presented. It is shown that Android Smartphone can provide a platform to implement Bluetooth-based application for Smart Living.
  • 9. A Self-Managing Fault Management Mechanism for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Muhammad Asim, Hala Mokhtar and Madjid Merabti
    November 2010 | Cited by 52

    A sensor network can be described as a collection of sensor nodes which co-ordinate with each other to perform some specific function. These sensor nodes are mainly in large numbers and are densely deployed either inside the phenomenon or very close to it. They can be used for various application areas (e.g. health, military, home). Failures are inevitable in wireless sensor networks due to inhospitable environment and unattended deployment. Therefore, it is necessary that network failures are detected in advance and appropriate measures are taken to sustain network operation. We previously proposed a cellular approach for fault detection and recovery. In this paper we extend the cellular approach and propose a new fault management mechanism to deal with fault detection and recovery. We propose a hierarchical structure to properly distribute fault management tasks among sensor nodes by introducing more 'self-managing' functions. The proposed failure detection and recovery algorithm has been compared with some existing related work and proven to be more energy efficient.
  • 10. Optimized Performance Evaluation of LTE Hard Handover Algorithm with Average RSRP Constraint

    Cheng-Chung Lin, Kumbesan Sandrasegaran, Huda Adibah Mohd Ramli, and Riyaj Basukala
    April 2011 | Cited by 43

    Hard handover mechanism is adopted to be used in 3GPP Long Term Evolution (3GPP LTE) in order to reduce the complexity of the LTE network architecture. This mechanism comes with degradation in system throughput as well as a higher system delay. This paper proposes a new handover algorithm known as LTE Hard Handover Algorithm with Average Received Signal Reference Power (RSRP) Constraint (LHHAARC) in order to minimize number of handovers and the system delay as well as maximize the system throughput. An optimized system performance of the LHHAARC is evaluated and compared with three well-known handover algorithms via computer simulation. The simulation results show that the LHHAARC outperforms three well-known handover algorithms by having less number of average handovers per UE per second, shorter total system delay whilst maintaining a higher total system throughput.
  • 11. Channel estimation for LTE Uplink system by Perceptron neural network

    A. Omri, R. Bouallegue, R. Hamila and M. Hasna
    August 2010 | Cited by 40

    In this paper, a channel estimator using neural network is presented for Long Term Evolution (LTE) uplink. This paper considers multiuser SC-FDMA uplink transmissions with doubly selective channels. This channel estimation method uses knowledge of pilot channel properties to estimate the unknown channel response at non-pilot sub-carriers. First, the neural network estimator learns to adapt to the channel variations then it estimates the channel frequency response. Simulation results show that the proposed method has better performance, in terms of complexity and quality, compared to the conventional methods least square (LS), MMSE and decision feedback and it is more robust at high speed mobility.
  • 12. Zigbee Based Voice Controlled Wireless Smart Home System

    Thoraya Obaid, Haliemah Rashed, Ali Abu El Nour, Muhammad Rehan, Mussab Muhammad Saleh, and Mohammed Tarique
    February 2014 | Cited by 38

    In this paper a voice controlled wireless smart home system has been presented for elderly and disabled people. The proposed system has two main components namely (a) voice recognition system, and (b) wireless system. LabView software has been used to implement the voice recognition system. On the other hand, ZigBee wireless modules have been used to implement the wireless system. The main goal of this system is to control home appliances by using voice commands. The proposed system can recognize the voice commands, convert them into the required data format, and send the data through the wireless transmitter. Based on the received data at the wireless receiver associated with the appliances desired switching operations are performed. The proposed system is a low cost and low power system because ZigBee is used. Additionally the proposed system needs to be trained of voice command only once. Then the system can recognize the voice commands independent of vocabulary size, noise, and speaker characteristics (i.e., accent).
  • 13. Performance Analysis of On-Demand Routing Protocols for Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks

    A. Shastri, R. Dadhich and Ramesh C. Poonia
    August 2011 | Cited by 37

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) are a peculiar subclass of mobile ad hoc networks that raise a number of technical challenges, especially from the point of view of their mobility models. Currently, the field of VANETs has gained an important part of the interest of researchers and become very popular. More specifically, VANETs can operate without fixed infrastructure and can survive rapid changes in the network topology. The main method for evaluating the performance of routing protocols for VANETs by Network Simulator-2.34. This paper is subjected to the on-demand routing protocols with identical loads and evaluates their relative performance with respect to the two performance context: average End-toEnd delay and packet delivery ratio. We investigated various simulation scenarios with varying pause times, connections and no. of nodes particularly for AODV and DSR. We will also discuss briefly about the feasibility of VANETs in respect of Indian automotive networks.
  • 14. Impact of Mobility on the Performance of Multicast Routing Protocols in MANET

    R. Manoharan and E. Ilavarasan
    May 2010 | Cited by 37

    The advent of ubiquitous computing and the proliferation of portable computing devices have raised the importance of mobile ad-hoc network. A major challenge lies in adapting multicast communication into such environments where mobility and link failures are inevitable. The purpose of this paper is to study impact of mobility models in performance of multicast routing protocols in MANET. In this work, three widely used mobility models such as Random Way Point, Reference Point Group and Manhattan mobility models and three popular multicast routing protocols such as On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol, Multicast Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing protocol and Adaptive Demand driven Multicast Routing protocol have been chosen and implemented in NS2. Several experiments have been carried out to study the relative strengths, weakness and applicability of multicast protocols to these mobility models.
  • 15. LACBER: New Location Aided Routing Protocol For GPS Scarce Manet

    Dipankar Deb, Srijita Barman Roy and Nabendu Chaki
    August 2009 | Cited by 37

    Completely GPS-free positioning systems for wireless, mobile, ad-hoc networks typically stress on building a network-wide coordinate system. Such systems suffer from lack of mobility and high computational overhead. On the other hand, specialized hardware in GPS-enabled nodes tends to increase the solution cost. A number of GPS free position based routing algorithms have been studied by the authors before proposing a new positioning framework in this paper. The proposed positioning framework is characterized by using only a handful of GPS enabled nodes. Lower dependence on specialized GPS hardware reduces the total cost of implementing the framework. A new location aided routing protocol called Location Aided Cluster Based Energy-efficient Routing (LACBER) has been proposed in the paper. Simulation results show that using the proposed positioning framework, LACBER turns out to be efficient in lowering mean hop and hence in utilizing the limited energy of mobile nodes.
  • 16. An Intelligent Network Selection Strategy Based on MADM Methods in Heterogeneous Networks

    Lahby Mohamed , Cherkaoui Leghris and Adib Abdellah
    February 2012 | Cited by 36

    Providing service continuity to the end users with best quality is a very important issue in the next generation wireless communications. With the evolution of the mobile devices towards a multimode architecture and the coexistence of multitude of radio access technologies (RAT’s), the users are able to benefit simultaneously from these RAT’s. However, the major issue in heterogeneous wireless communications is how to choose the most suitable access network for mobile’s user which can be used as long as possible for communication. To achieve this issue, this paper proposes an intelligent network selection strategy which combines two multi attribute decision making (MADM) methods such as analytic network process (ANP) and the technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS) method. The ANP method is used to find the differentiate weights of available networks by considering each criterion and the TOPSIS method is applied to rank the alternatives. Our new strategy for network selection can dealing with the limitations of MADM methods which are the ranking abnormality and the ping-ponf effect.
  • 17. Performance Analysis of LS and LMMSE Channel Estimation Techniques for LTE Downlink Systems

    Abdelhakim Khlifi and Ridha Bouallegue
    October 2011 | Cited by 34

    The main purpose of this paper is to study the performance of two linear channel estimators for LTE Downlink systems, the Least Square Error (LSE) and the Linear Minimum Mean Square Error (LMMSE). As LTE is a MIMO-OFDM based system, a cyclic prefix is inserted at the beginning of each transmitted OFDM symbol in order to completely suppress both inter-carrier interference (ICI) and inter-symbol interference (ISI). Usually, the cyclic prefix is equal to or longer than the channel length but in some cases and because of some unforeseen channel behaviour, the cyclic prefix can be shorter. Therefore, we propose to study the performance of the two linear estimators under the effect of the channel length. Computer simulations show that, in the case where the cyclic prefix is equal to or longer than the channel length,LMMSE performs better than LSE but at the cost of computational complexity.In the other case, LMMSE continue to improve its performance only for low SNR values but it degrades for high SNR values in which LS shows better performance for LTE Downlink systems. MATLAB Monte – Carlo simulations are used to evaluate the performance of the studied estimators in terms of Mean Square Error (MSE) and Bit Error Rate (BER) for22 LTE Downlink systems.
  • 18. Mobile Agent Based Congestion Control Using AODV Routing Protocol Technique for Mobile Ad-Hoc Network

    Vishnu Kumar Sharma and Dr. Sarita Singh Bhadauria
    April 2012 | Cited by 31

    In Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) obstruction occurs due to the packet loss and it can be successfully reduced by involving congestion control scheme which includes routing algorithm and a flow control at the network layer. In this paper, we propose to agent based congestion control technique for MANETs. In our technique, the information about network congestion is collected and distributed by mobile agents (MA) A mobile agent based congestion control AODV routing protocol is proposed to avoid congestion in ad hoc network. Some mobile agents are collected in ad-hoc network, which carry routing information and nodes congestion status. When mobile agent movements through the network, it can select a less-loaded neighbor node as its next hop and update the routing table according to the node’s congestion status. With the support of mobile agents, the nodes can get the dynamic network topology in time. By simulation results, we have shown that our proposed technique attains high delivery ratio and throughput with reduced delay when compared with the different existing technique.
  • 19. SINR, RSRP, RSSI and RSRQ Measurements in Long Term Evolution Networks

    Farhana Afroz, Ramprasad Subramanian, Roshanak Heidary, Kumbesan Sandrasegaran and Solaiman Ahmed
    August 2015 | Cited by 30

    The four basic Radio Resource Management (RRM) measurements in Long Term Evolution (LTE) system are Channel Quality Indicator (CQI), Reference Signal Received Power (RSRP), Reference Signal Received Quality (RSRQ), and Carrier Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI). A measurement of channel quality represented by Signal to Interference plus Noise Ratio (SINR) is used for link adaptation along with packet scheduling, whereas RSRP and RSRQ are needed for making handover decision during intra-eUTRAN (evolved Universal Terrestrial Random Access Network) handover in LTE. In this paper, some practical measurement results recorded from a live LTE network of Australia using a commercial measurement tool namely NEMO Handy are analysed to verify the possible relationships among SINR, RSRP, RSSI and RSRQ as well as to evaluate the effects of SNR on throughput. In addition, the intraeUTRAN handover events occurred during the test period within the test area are studied. The analysis yields some useful information such as: if the SINR is good for a measurement slot, higher throughput is achieved; RSRP and SNR are proportional to each other on average; and lesser is the difference between RSSI and RSRP, better is the RSRQ – each of which is consistent with theory. All the measurement results are evaluated using computer programs built on MATLAB platform.
  • 20. Analysis of Security Threats in Wireless Sensor Network

    Sahabul Alam ` and Debashis De
    April 2014 | Cited by 28

    Wireless Sensor Network(WSN) is an emerging technology and explored field of researchers worldwide in the past few years, so does the need for effective security mechanisms. The sensing technology combined with processing power and wireless communication makes it lucrative for being exploited in abundance in future. The inclusion of wireless communication technology also incurs various types of security threats due to unattended installation of sensor nodes as sensor networks may interact with sensitive data and /or operate in hostile unattended environments. These security concerns be addressed from the beginning of the system design. The intent of this paper is to investigate the security related issues in wireless sensor networks. In this paper we have explored general security threats in wireless sensor network with extensive study.